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 Raw Material

Flour:

flour

In general wheat flours are used for producing wafers. There isn't any standard flour for wafer. The quality of the flour depends in particular on the chemical composition of the
grain, which in turn is effected by soil climatic weather and agricultural conditions which growing.

Storage of the grain and its grinding are additional factors which determine the characteristics of the flour. Its quality is therefore different for each harvest. Flours used for wafer production should be stored at a certain temperature and loosened up before being processed by screening in several times. The following factors of the flour have to be taken into account for producing wafers gluten content, sedimentation value, degree of grinding and grain size- In general weak wheat flours are used, but stronger flours yield to the same goods results, if vegetable starch (cornstarch or others) are added or the fat content is increased in the recipe.Judging the quality of gluten:
Low level of gluten: 18 - 22% gluten content
Medium level of gluten 22 - 25% gluten content
High level of gluten 25 - 32% gluten content
The gluten quality can be improved by adding fat, lecithin, egg yolk and salt Heat and short acid action.Flour mixtures are also used in order to improve the wafer quality, such as:* Stronger flours used as additives, if the wafer is too hard or weighs too much:* additives of 5% or Soya flour to make the wafer crispier. In the same way as the gluten content grows, the water bond ability and this result is an energy consuming baking process.

The sedimentation value shows the quality of the proteins these are dominating for the sheet quality. Lower sedimentation values yield to a more delicate wafer sheet. As the baking behavior of whole-meal flour, there are indications that it is susceptible to stick to the baking plates.

Another decisive factor for the wafer flour quality is its fine -grain structure if the flour is too coarse, the wafer dough will swell again, if it is left for a longer time, and this will result in faults when portioning the dough. 65 up to 70% of the total amount of flour should be within the range of 40 ... 70 microns.

Flour: Commercial Types of Flour and Their Uses

White flour is the finely ground endosperm of the wheat kernel. All – purpose flour is white flour milled from hard wheats or a blend of hard and soft wheats. It gives the best results for many kinds of products, including some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour is usually enriched and may be bleached ar unbleached. Bleaching will not affect nutrient value. Different brands will vary in performance. Protein varies from 8 to 11 percent.

Bread flour is white that is blend of hard, high-protein wheats and greater gluten strength and protein content than all-purpose flour. Unbleached and in some cases conditioned with ascorbic acid, bread flour is milled primarily for commercial bakers, but is available at most grocery stores. Pretein varies from 12 to 14 percent.

Cake flour is fine-textured, silk flour milled from soft wheats with low protein content. It is used to make cakes, cookies, crackers. It is used to make cakes, cookies, crackers, quick breads and some types of pastry. Cake flour has a greater percentage of starch and less protein, which keeps cakes and pastries tender and delicate. Protein varies from 7 to 9 percent.

Self-rising flour, also referred to as phosphated flour, is a convenience product made be adding salt and leaving to all-purpose flour. It is commonly used in biscuits and quick breads, but is not recommended for yeast breads. One cup of self-rising flour contains 1-1/2 teaspoons baking power and ½ teaspoon salt. Self-rising can be substituted for all-purpose flour by reducing salt and baking power according to these proportions.

Pastry flour has properties intermediate between those of all-purpose and cake flours. It is usually milled from soft wheat for pastry-making, but can be used for cookies, cakes, crackers and similar products. It differs from hard wheat flour in that it has a finer texture and lighter consistency. Protein varies from 8 to 9 percent.

Semolina is the coarsely ground endosperm of durum, a hard spring wheat with a high-gluten content and golden color. It is hard, granular and resembles sugar Semolina is usually enriched and is used to make couscous and paste products such as spaghetti, vermicelli, macaroni and lasagna noodles. Except for some specialty products, breads are seldom made with semolina.

Durum flour is finely ground semolina. It is usually enriched and used to make noodles.

Whole wheat, stone-ground and graham flour can be used interchangeably; nutrient values differ minimally. Either grinding the wholeweat kernel or recombining the white flour, germ and bran that have been separated during milling produces them. Their only differences may be in coarseness and protein content. Insoluble fiber content is higher than in white flours.

Gluten flour is usually milled from spring wheat and has a high protein (40-45 percent), low-starch content. It is used primarily for diabetic breads, or mixed with other non-wheat or low-protein wheat flours to produce a stronger dough structure. Gluten flour improves baking quality and produces high-protein gluten bread.


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