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Soya Flour:

soya flour

BAKERY USES OF FULL-FAT SOYA FLOURS

Soya flours are extensively used in many parts of the globe in baked goods such as bread. Biscuits, buns, milk bread, doughnuts, cakes, cake mixes, cookies, pancakes and pasta products just not because they are nutritious, but because they have certain important baking properties.

In England, majority of the commercially produced cakes contain full fat Soya flours. In USA, Soya flour is regularly added in about 7% to 8 % for bakery goods and confectionery. About 1, 50,000 to 2, 00,000 tons of Soya flours and grits are going into formulating food products in the Untited States every year. In Israel and Columbia, adding 5% Soya flour to the bread has been made compulsory by law.

The baking properties of Soya Flours are detailed below:

1. WATER ABSORPTION PROPERTIES: Water absorption of bakery products increase from 1% to 1.5% for every 1% addition of Soya flour. Increased water absorption helps to retain moisture in the short shelf-life bakery products, thereby keeping them stay fresh longer.
The water absorption properties of Soya flours are important in bakery goods. When Soya flour is substituted for wheat flour from 2% to 3%, it becomes necessary to add more water to the doughs, which increases the yield and improves dough handling characteristics.

2. VISUAL AND BAKING CHARACTERS: The fortification of Soya flour in bakery products also would result in the formation of smoother, better-having, more even distribution of air cells and even-texture. Soya incorporated cakes minimize shrinkage. soya flours improve crumb body, resilience and baking quality of products in general.

3. NUTRITIONAL QUALITIES: Soya flours contain about 42% proteins of high biological value. Soya protein is an excellent source of all the nine essential amino acids vital for body growth, maintenance and reproduction. It is also a good source of vitamins and minerals. The oil contents of Soya flour (20) % have high level of poly-unsaturated essential fatty acids lenoleic, lenolenic and lecithin, which are found to be highly effective in promoting the growth of body and the brain.

4. Other Functional qualities of full-fat Soya flour in general:

a) Water absorption and binding i.e. , Hydrogen bonding of HOH and entrapment of HOH, which facilitates greater water incorporation.
b) Improves dough handling.
c) Improves machinability of cooking dough.
d) Improve moisture retention during baking.
e) Improves cake tenderness, crumb structure and texture.
f) Enhances rate of crust colour development
g) Retards fat absorption by donuts.
h) Prolongs freshness and storage stability.
i) Reduces stickiness in macaroni.
j) Improved nutritional quality.
k) Improves elasticity, i.e., makes disulfide links in gels deformable.
l) Flavour binding, i.e., absorption and entrapment of flavours.
With minor, economical and practical change, using Soya flour in the formulating of bakery and pasta products, nutrition all over the country can be largely improved.

The following are the specific applications of full-fat soya flours in baked goods

Advantages of adding full-fat Soya to Bread

1. Soya flour provides improved water absorption and dough handling properties, tenderizing effects, body and resilience as does non-fat dry milk.
2. Bread freshness is maintained because soya protein retains free moisture during the baking cycle.
3. Soya proteins improve curst colour and toasting characteristics in bread.
4. Nutritional studies indicate that the protein quality of commercial white bread containing 3% soya flour is equal to or slightly superior to bread containing 3% soya flour is equal to or slightly superior to bread containing 3% non-fat dry milk.
5. As a general rule, when adding soya flour to various baked goods formulations, upto 3% of the wheat flour may be replaced with soya flour without any formula adjustments other than water. Usually for every kg. of soya flour substituted in the formula, and additional 1 to 1.5 kgs. of water must be added.

Advantages of adding full-fat Soya to Cakes

1. In cakes, 3% to 5% soya flour, based on wheat flour weight is generally added. Soya protein products help in the emulsification i.e., formation & stabilization of fats and other ingredients. The resulting doughs are more uniform, are smother and more pliable. They are also sticky. The finished baked products have improved crust color, grain texture and symmetry and will stay fresh longer due to effective moisture retention.
2. Full fat soya flour is a natural emulsifier and stabilizer in many food systems. It is used widely in cake making, thus sparing more expensive ingredients like egg, vanaspathi and milk. It also stabilizes the structure and leaves a softer, moisture crumb to the cake and greatly extends its useful shelf-life.
3. Soya flours have been used commercially in cakes for their water absorption characteristics and their ability to hold moisture during the shelf-life of the products. These functional properties and the associated economics have created considerable interest among bakers in use of soya flour as an extender of cake flours.
4. Full-fat soya flour also enable foaming i.e., foams stable films to entrap gas, which are important for cakes.

Advantages of adding full-fat Soya to Biscuits

1. In Biscuits, soya protein products help in the emulsification of fats and other ingredients. The resulting doughs are more uniform, are smoother and more pliable. They are also less sticky. The finished baked products have improved crust colour, grain texture and symmetry and will stay fresh longer due to effective moisture retention.
2. Soya flour provides improved water absorption and dough handling properties, tenderizing effects, body and resilience as does non-fat dry milk.
3. Use of 2 to 3% soya flour also improves machining and produces biscuits with a crisp bite. Soya incorporated biscuits can be machined very easily and will retain freshness longer.
4. Soya also improves water holding capacity, sweetening characteristics and finished product quality,
5. Fortification of full-fat soya flour enables increased fat absorptions i.e., binding of free fats, which are important for biscuits and confectioneries.
6. On adding 3% soya to biscuits, no change is to be made in the basic formula, except increasing the addition of water by 1% to 1.5 % for each 1% of soya flour.

Advantages of adding Soya to Confectionery

1. In America & Europe, the Confectionery Industry uses soya flour in various proportions. Cereals and toffee type products include soya with handle the products better and are less sticky on a high-speed wrapping machine. In fudges, soya flour will lower the rate of dehydration and thereby aid in preventing crystallization of the sugar. Full fat soya nuts may be fried and incorporated in candy bars in place of nut may be fried and incorporated in candy bars in place of nut meats.
2. Soya protein has excellent whipability, the capacity to form stable foam with air, which finds its applications in candy and confections.



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